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CASE REPORT Recurrence of oxalate nephropathy after renal transplantation in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa: a case report Luís Mendonça, Manuela Bustorf, Roberto Silva, Joana Sobrinho Simões, Susana Sampaio
Hyperoxaluria is an important complication of short bowel syndrome (SBS) and a non‑negligible cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD)  
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(1): 31-34 Advance Access publication 14 March 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT Endogenous endophthalmitis: a not so rare ophthalmic emergency among hemodialysis patients Andreia Dias da Silva, Luísa Costa, Ana Rodrigues, Carolina Ferreira, Rosa Miguel, Marta Costa, Miguel Oliveira, Tiago Barra, Cátia Pêgo, Giovanni Sorbo, Carla Lima, Jesús Garrido, Tânia Sousa, Edgar
Endogenous endophthalmitis is an intraocular infection secondary to the hematogenous spread of microorganisms.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(1): 57-59 Advance Access publication 27 March 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
PERSPECTIVE Pancreas allocation and diabetic end-stage kidney disease Nuno Moreira Fonseca
Transplant options for patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage kidney disease include deceased donor kidney, live donor kidney, simultaneous pancreas-kidney, pancreas after kidney and islet cell transplantation.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(1): 83-85 Advance Access publication 2 April 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT Severe passenger lymphocyte syndrome associated to Rh antibodies after donor living renal transplantation Marika Bini Antunes, Jorge Malheiro, Leonidio Dias, La Salete Martins, Sofia Pedroso, Manuela Almeida, António Castro Henriques, Margarida Amil
The passenger lymphocyte syndrome may cause hemolytic anemia after bone marrow and solid organ transplantation when there is minor erythrocyte antigen incompatibility in the donor/recipient pair.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 83-85 Advance Access publication 8 May 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Kidney dysfunction in renal amyloidosis: does the complement system play a part in hereditary ATTRV30M and iatrogenic ATTR amyloidosis? Ana Carina Ferreira, Fernanda Carvalho, Ana Rita Santos, Fernando Nolasco
Introduction and aims: The complement system may play a part in the pathogenesis of amyloid disorders.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 89-94 Advance Access publication 28 May 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patientswith chronic kidney disease - old and new drugs Ana Ferreira, Filipa Bastos, Maria Carlos Cordeiro, Jorge Portugal
Chronic kidney disease is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 99-107 Advance Access publication 6 June 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT Nephronophthisis, a pediatric challenge Ana M. Garcia, Sónia M. Gomes, Telma Francisco, Ana P. Serrão
Nephronophthisis is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease characterized by reduced concentrating ability of the kidney, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease and progression to end-stage renal disease.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 109-112 Advance Access publication 26 June 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Cardiovascular primary prevention - directed approach for individual features Tânia Branco Mano, Sílvia Aguiar Rosa, Pedro Rio, Ana Teresa Timóteo, Rui Cruz Ferreira
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbimortality globally.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 119-126 Advance Access publication 27 June 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
TUBULAR QUIZ Hypokalemia in the setting of acute kidney injury and non-anion gap metabolic acidosis Nuno Moreira Fonseca, Patrícia Alves, David Navarro, João Sousa, Fernando Nolasco
We present a case of a 48-year-old female with past medical history of well-controlled hypertension who was diagnosed with Ewinglike sarcoma, with abdominal wall involvement and pulmonary metastatic lesions.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 139-141 Advance Access publication 4 July 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
COMMENT IgA immune complex deposits, what can lie behind them? Comments on a case of IgA dominant glomerulonephritis associated to staphylococcus infection. Fernanda Carvalho
In this journal Nicole Pestana et al. describe a case of “IgA dominant glomerulonephritis associated to staphylococcus infection”.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 131 Advance Access publication 1 July 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
NEPHROPATHOLOGY QUIZ An unusual cause of chronic renal dysfunction Maria do Mar Menezes, Patrícia Alves, Aníbal Ferreira, Helena Sousa, Mário Góis, Fernando Nolasco
We present the case of a 41‑year‑old caucasian woman with past medical history of pre‑eclampsia, obesity, cholecystectomy, goiter and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology diagnosed at age of 21.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 133-136 Advance Access publication 4 July 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
PERSPECTIVE Nephrology and intervention in the community ? On the need for improving the interplay between nephrology centers and primary care in Portugal Idalina Beirão, Edgar Almeida
Chronic kidney disease is increasing in prevalence, especially among older people.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 113-114 Advance Access publication 26 June 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Vitamin D - New insights into an old molecule Cristina Jorge
New data on vitamin D has emerged in the last fifteen years and continues to expand practically every day.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(3): 145-152 Advance Access publication 23 September 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Contrast agents in Nephrology - a literature review Sara Cardoso Fernandes, Ana Carina Ferreira
Contrast agents are widely used in ambulatory and hospitalized patients, as a complement to imaging studies, improving diagnostic accuracy.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(3): 153-157 Advance Access publication 23 September 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Comprehensive geriatric assessment in nephrology Ana Farinha, Sofia Duque
In Portugal, in 2018, 64.5% of dialysis patients were elderly and nearly a quarter were older than 80 years.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(3): 159-166 Advance Access publication 27 September 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
HOT TOPICS IN MEDICINE Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae - the basics for everymedical specialty Marisa Araújo, Carla Mimoso Santos, Daniela Lages
Enterobacteriaceae are ubiquitous gram‑negative bacilli, part of the intestinal flora.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(3): 167-172 Advance Access publication 1 October 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
PERSPECTIVE Hocus POCUS in Nephrology: is it time for magic? Hugo Diniz, Luís Coentrão
Point‑of‑care ultrasound (POCUS) is an emerging bedside discipline that aims to enhance physical examination findings with real‑time information from the ultrasound.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(3): 183-184 Advance Access publication 8 October 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
PERSPECTIVE Planning ESKD treatment: a plea for a stepwise person-centered approach including conservative care Helena Sá, Raymond Vanholder
A paradigm shift in the treatment of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is urgently needed.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(3): 177-182 Advance Access publication 8 October 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
NEPHROPATHOLOGY QUIZ Pathology turned its back on semiology Sara Barreto, Ana Domingos, David Navarro, Mário Góis, Helena Sousa, Fernando Nolasco
We present a case of a 32‑year‑old caucasian female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosed 7 years ago.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(2): 189-192 Advance Access publication 2 October 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT IgA Nephropathy with Thrombotic microangiopathy: Is this secondary thrombotic microangiopathy or IgA nephropathy-triggered atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome? Hugo Diniz, Maria Bandeira, Ana Teresa Nunes, Bruno Besteiro, João Coimbra, Filipa Gomes, Susana Sampaio
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 207-211 Advance Access publication ?? November 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Hypothyroidism and chronic kidney disease: An undervalued two-way relationship Joana Coutinho, Catarina Reis Santos, Ernesto Rocha
There is long-standing evidence that thyroid disease and kidney disease have a two-way relationship, as they can aggravate and lead to each other.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 201-205 Advance Access publication ?? November 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Nephrotoxicity in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors Teresa Chuva
Over the last years, immunotherapy has become part of the most important strategies to treat some types of cancer.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 213-217 Advance Access publication ?? November 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT Cryoglobulinemic HCV-related membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with TMA ? secondary HUS or infection-triggered aHUS? Ana Catarina Teixeira, Helena Pinto, Nuno Afonso, Fátima Costa, Carol Marinho, Vítor Sousa, Jorge Pratas, Rui Alves
Introduction: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is a pattern of glomerular injury on renal biopsy with characteristic light microscopic changes, namely mesangial hypercellularity, endocapillary proliferation and double contour formation along the glomerular capillary walls.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 223-226 Advance Access publication ?? December 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
PERSPECTIVE Kidney fibrosis in disease and aging - The stage and some key actors Rui Alves
Deepening the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of disease in all organ systems has always been the cornerstone of progress and one of the greatest challenges of modern medicine.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 219-222 Advance Access publication ?? December 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
COMMENT Alternative pathway complement activation in secondary thrombotic microangiopathies: is genetics the smoking gun? Joaquim Calado
Two different reports in the current PJHN highlight the mist that surrounds the role of the alternative pathway complement activation in secondary forms of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA).
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 237 Advance Access publication ?? December 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Magnesium supplementation to prevent recurrence of renal stones Ivo Laranjinha, Patricia Matias, Jorge Dickson
Stone formers have lower urinary magnesium than healthy people. Higher urinary magnesium levels are associated with lower incidence of kidney stones, and hypomagnesuria has been described as a lithogenic risk factor.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 231-236 Advance Access publication 30 December 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT Gemcitabine-associated thrombotic microangiopathy - a role for eculizumab? Teresa Chuva, Ana Ferreira, José Maximino, Rui Henrique, Ana Paiva, Alfredo Loureiro
Gemcitabine‑associated thrombotic microangiopathy (gTMA) is a rare entity that is usually associated with a poor prognosis, with loss of kidney function and often death.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 239-242 Advance Access publication 30 December 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
NEPHROPATHOLOGY QUIZ Not the usual suspect Filipa Cardoso, Rui Barata, Joaquim Calado, Mário Góis, Helena Viana, David Navarro, Marco Mendes, Fernando Nolasco
We present a case of a 69-year-old caucasian male with prior type 2 diabetes mellitus and immune thrombocytopenia treated with corticosteroids and splenectomy in 2015.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 243-245 Advance Access publication 2 January 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT Nephrotic syndrome in a patient with metastatic melanoma: beyond the obvious Ana Messias, Joaquim Calado, Helena Viana, Fernando Nolasco
Nephrotic syndrome in a patient with metastatic melanoma can occur in the context of a paraneoplastic glomerulopathy or as a complication of treatment.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 253-256 Advance Access publication 3 January 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Henoch-Schönlein Purpura: What to expect Maria João Gaia, Mariana Capela, Joana Pires Borges, Eduarda Marques, Graça Ferreira, António Vinhas da Silva
Introduction: Henoch-Schönlein Purpura is the most common systemic small vessel vasculitis of childhood.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 247-251 Advance Access publication 30 December 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
PERSPECTIVE Make Urine Great Again Nuno Moreira Fonseca, David Navarro, Giuseppe Garigali, Giovanni Battista Fogazzi
Microscopic examination of urinary sediment (U‑sed) is an affordable and reliable diagnostic tool that constitutes a cornerstone of renal care.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 227-230 Advance Access publication ?? December 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
PERSPECTIVE Some reflections on renal care Fernando Macário
While we wait for a miracle drug to treat kidney diseases, we still have to live with the increased numbers of people in need of renal replacement therapy (RRT).
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 257-259 Advance Access publication ?? January 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Charlson Comorbidity Index - its impact on hospitalization and mortality in chronic renal disease Luísa H. Pereira, Filipa Mendes, André Fragoso, Ana P. Silva, Pedro L. Neves
Introduction: Renal replacement therapy has not always been shown to benefit end-stage renal failure patients who are elderly or have multiple comorbidities.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(4): 261-265 Advance Access publication 30 December 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF
LETTER TO THE EDITOR Acute Kidney Injury in patients referred for ECMO therapy Anna Lima, Sílvia Coelho, Paulo Freitas
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a rescue therapy for critically ill patients with severe respiratory and/or circulatory failure, and its use has grown considerably in recent years.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 31 Advance Access publication 25 March 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
PERSPECTIVE A Nephro-Obstetric outpatient clinic model Estela Nogueira, Rita Calça, Iolanda Godinho, Luisa Pinto
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide and studies estimate that around 6% of women of childbearing age suffer from kidney disease.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 3-10 Advance Access publication 23 March 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Hyperuricemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: a role yet to be explained Rui Barata, Filipa Cardoso, Tiago Assis Pereira
The role of uric acid as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease development and progression is still a matter of discussion.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 11-16 Advance Access publication 23 March 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Doppler Ultrasound in Vascular Access care: the pearls and pitfalls of flow volume measurement Hugo Diniz, Luís Coentrão
Vascular access (VA) care is a critical part of the management of end‑stage renal disease.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 25-30 Advance Access publication 25 March 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT Can cryoglobulinemia trigger ANCA vasculitis? Ivo Cunha, M. Teresa Santos, P. Ricardo Pereira
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a rare and heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 21-24 Advance Access publication 25 March 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Predictors of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis: experience during 3 decades David Fiel, Joana Santos, Rita Vicente, Iolanda Santos, Beatriz Malvar, Rui Silva, Manuel Amoedo, Carlos Pires
Introduction: Peritonitis is a common complication in peritoneal dialysis patients and a major cause for dropout.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 33-39 Advance Access publication 1 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 - two case reports Inês Ganhão, Catarina Borges, Marta Amorim, Marisa Braga da Cruz, Susana Nobre, Telma Francisco, Dinorah Cardoso, Margarida Abranches
Background: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease, caused by mutations in AGXT gene, with an estimated incidence of 1:100.000 live births per year in Europe.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 55-57 Advance Access publication 1 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT Sarcoidosis: a case with pulmonary, cutaneous and renal injury Catarina Isabel Ribeiro, Susana Pereira, Ana Ventura, Clara Almeida, Clara Santos, João Carlos Fernandes
Sarcoidosis is a rare multisystem disease that is characterized by the formation of inflammatory granulomatous processes.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 51-53 Advance Access publication 1 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Treatment of lupus nephritis - past, present and (near) future David Navarro
The management of lupus nephritis is challenging for most nephrologists. Many trials have brought only a certain degree of evidence to the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, and many questions remain unanswered.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 41-49 Advance Access publication 6 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
CASE REPORT A physiological approach to recurrent nephrolithiasis and its genetic determinants Nuno Moreira Fonseca, Marine Livrozet, Rosa Varga-Poussou, Emmanuel Letavernier, Vincent Frochot, Michel Daudon, Jean-Philippe Haymann
We report a case of a 63-year-old patient with recurrent nephrolithiasis for over 40 years and a significant family history of nephrolithiasis.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 17-19 Advance Access publication 6 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF OUR REVIEWERS Thank you to our peer reviewers in 2019 --
Good and timely peer review is absolutely essential for the success of a journal. Therefore, we are most grateful for the support of those colleagues who have freely given their time and effort to review articles for the Portuguese Journal of Nephrology and Hypertension.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 77 Advance Access publication 8 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
NEPHROPATHOLOGY QUIZ Anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury - a diagnostic challenge Sara Cardoso Fernandes, Ana Carina Ferreira, Mário Góis, Helena Viana, Fernando Nolasco
The authors present the case of a 72-year-old female with previous medical history of hypertension, ischemic cardiomyopathy and cerebrovascular disease with an ill-defined episode that resulted in brachial palsy.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 73-75 Advance Access publication 9 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Therapeutic plasma exchange in patients in a portuguese ICU Rita Calça, Ana Gaspar, Afonso Santos, Adelina Aufico, Paulo Freitas, Sílvia Coelho
Purpose: The aim of this study is to characterize a Portuguese Intensive Care Unit experience in therapeutic plasma exchange in critically ill patients.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 67-71 Advance Access publication 10 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
ORIGINAL ARTICLE ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation in Portugal Catarina Isabel Ribeiro, Natália Silva, Jorge Malheiro, Manuela Almeida, Sofia Pedroso, Maria La Salete Martins, Leonídio Dias, António Castro Henriques, António Cabrita
Introduction: ABO incompatibility was considered a barrier to kidney transplant.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 63-66 Advance Access publication 8 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
PERSPECTIVE New Nephrology Departments: Challenges of the Future. Think big but start small Carlos Botelho
Portugal has the highest incident of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Europe and the incidence and prevalence of advanced CKD requiring renal replacement therapy are higher than in other occidental European countries.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2020; 34(1): 59-61 Advance Access publication 8 April 2020 DOWNLOAD PDF
REVIEW ARTICLE Membranous nephropathy: an update Hernando Trujillo, Manuel Praga
Great advances have been made in the pathophysiologic and therapeutic areas of membranous nephropathy in the last years.
Port J Nephrol Hypert 2019; 33(1): 10-18 Advance Access publication 18 February 2019 DOWNLOAD PDF

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